Deforestation is a major driver of biodiversity loss in the Philippines. Between 1934 and 1990, the country lost 10.9 million hectares (ha) of forest cover.
Since 1989, the community of Falealupo, Government of Samoa and foreign parties have signed three Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) agreements for the purposes of Research & Development (R&D) and bio-prospecting. The agreements were put in place for the use of traditional knowledge from local healers and the local plant ‘mamala’ for HIV AIDS research.
From 2011 to 2017, the Brazilian government implemented seven projects in three areas of the Caatinga biome, in collaboration with the Brazilian bank Caixa Econômica Federal. The projects aimed to promote the sustainable management and use of timber for industrial and domestic purposes in the Caatinga, with the goal to reduce the high deforestation rate in the biome.
This best practice highlights the positive incentive measures that the government of China has designed and is implementing to encourage the achievement of biodiversity-friendly outcomes. It also highlights the steps that the government is taking to eliminate perverse incentives and subsidies which are harmful to biodiversity.
To achieve its national biodiversity target on promoting positive incentives, while eliminating negative incentive measures for biodiversity conservation, China has:
According to China’s Fifth National Report (5NR) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), China is on track to achieve its national biodiversity targets, and its international commitments contributing towards the achievement of Aichi Biodiversity Target (ABT) 11, on protected area system expansion and management. By the end of 2017, China had 2750 nature reserves, covering areas of 1.417 million km sq. and accounting for 14.86 per cent of the country’s land.
This course focuses on the implementation of international principles for sustainable water management, through the lens of the Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). It aims at illustrating the main “green” principles of international water law, stemming from both binding and non-binding instruments, and their implementation in domestic legislation, transboundary agreements and related court/arbitration decisions.
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) provides a tool that assists in the anticipation and minimization of development’s negative effects. Undertaken in the early stages of project planning and design, EIA helps shape development in a manner that best suits the local environment and is most responsive to human needs. This course introduces you to the Espoo Convention, which seeks to establish Environmental Impact Assessment-based mechanisms to effectively monitor and control trans-boundary pollution.
Widespread concern about the need for global action for the protection of the natural environment is a relatively recent phenomenon. Some interstate efforts to address problems relating to the oceans, endangered species, and other natural resources, date back to the nineteenth century. This course introduces you to treaty law and key concepts of international environmental law. International environmental law is a relatively recent subset of international law. It will take you 90 minutes approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials.
This course covers the relationship between human rights and the environment; explains the bases for the application of human rights to environmental issues, and the procedural and substantive obligations relating to the environment; and gives examples of constitutions that have incorporated a right to a healthy environment, good practices in procedural and substantive environmental protection. You need about 3 hours to complete the course.
This course covers the basic principles and concepts of international environmental governance, explaining how international environmental agreements and policies are made, and by whom; who ensures that these agreements are complied with and, if necessary, enforced; how governance works on the level “above” the national jurisdictions, where there is no all encompassing competence as is the case on the State level. You need about 3 hours to complete the course.