Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) provides a tool that assists in the anticipation and minimization of development’s negative effects. Undertaken in the early stages of project planning and design, EIA helps shape development in a manner that best suits the local environment and is most responsive to human needs. This course introduces you to the Espoo Convention, which seeks to establish Environmental Impact Assessment-based mechanisms to effectively monitor and control trans-boundary pollution.
Widespread concern about the need for global action for the protection of the natural environment is a relatively recent phenomenon. Some interstate efforts to address problems relating to the oceans, endangered species, and other natural resources, date back to the nineteenth century. This course introduces you to treaty law and key concepts of international environmental law. International environmental law is a relatively recent subset of international law. It will take you 90 minutes approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials.
This course reviews and discusses the problem of desertification: what it is, its causes, manifestations, effects and scope. It proceeds to provide an overview of international law that has been developed to address desertification and the attendant ecological and socioeconomic problems, primarily by examining the scope of the 1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa (UNCCD). It will take you 1 hour approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials.
This course provides an overview of the international legal framework in the fight against ozone depletion. First, it describes the threats posed to the ozone layer by the use of ozone-depleting substances and analyzes the main obligations under the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol. A brief analysis of main achievements and challenges illustrates the success in reducing the Ozone layer and the need to continue working globally to find substitutes with low global warming potential to ozonedepleting substances.
“Air pollution” describes the presence of substances that are artificially introduced into the air. Air pollution stems from gases, which in excess are harmful to human health, buildings, ecosystems and the environment in general. This course primarily focuses on the problem of long- range transboundary air pollution, mainly in Europe and haze pollution focused on Southeast Asia. It will take you 1 hour approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials.
Land-based sources account for the 82% of the total marine pollution. Pollution from vessels can take the forms of oil, chemicals, lost cargo and equipment, sewage, garbage, fumes and invasive exotic species. Dumping is the deliberate disposal of wastes at sea. Offshore activity generates minor pollution primarily through the use of oily drilling muds and by production blow outs. This course introduces you to the international legal framework on marine pollution, which covers global and regional legally binding and non-legally binding agreements addressing different sources of pollution.
Marine and coastal areas support a diverse spectrum of marine life and for many people throughout the world, the marine environment is not only a vital source of protein, but the activities which it sustains, such as fisheries, transport and tourism, also provides them with an income. All of these activities have an impact on the marine environment and possibly on biodiversity. All of these activities have an impact on the marine environment and possibly on biodiversity.
The emergence of environmental protection obligations and of the principle of sustainable development, as well as the increased awareness that water resources have to be managed in a holistic approach, have highlighted the need to integrate existing water regulation regimes with rules and principles concerning the environmental aspects of freshwater resources, and to regulate the quantitative and qualitative aspects in an integrated manner. This course introduces you to the international legal framework on freshwater resources, which covers global and regional agreements.
Persistent organic pollutants (“POPs”) are organic chemical substances that remain intact for exceptionally long periods of time, become widely distributed throughout the environment, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms, and are toxic to both humans and wildlife. This course introduces you to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which seeks to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants. The e-course is comprised of three lessons.
The export of chemicals has raised grave concerns to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as they may be faced with chemicals without adequate information about their harmful impacts and without the infrastructure to manage them in an environmentally sound manner. This course introduces you to the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, which provides Parties with a first line of defense against hazardous chemicals. The e-course is comprised of three lessons.