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Le renforcement des capacités à négocier pour la résolution des conflits portant sur la gestion des ressources naturelles: le cas du Parc Marin de Mohéli, aux iles Comores

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This study is part of a year-end memory for obtaining a Master degree in Development, option Environmental Management from Senghor University, Burkina Faso campus, it is proposed to contribute a capacities building to negotiation for support decision making in the management to Mohéli Marine Park (PMM). In Comoros islands the Ramadan month, stay a period that population have a higher demand of protein food, for Mohéli marine park stakeholders Ramadan month is a period of the year where the conflicts on the marine resources access become very higher, and put on difficult the sustainable management of marine park naturals resources. The Case of the proper management of Marine Resources in the month of Ramadan, on the basis of several observation and analysis scales. The methodology is structured around a literature (including gray literature), expert statements questioned the maintenance base and field visits to collect information. The results of investigations show the existence in recent years many local tensions between the park community, and other stakeholders like fishers, park managers, NGOs, the local government (Island authority) and central government (Ministry of Agriculture, fishery and Environment), it is noted that these tensions and discontent occurs mostly in Ramadan month (a holy month for the Muslim, month of fasting, in these month the population likes eat in quality and quantity).  There is also a concern of the management of the environment and forests, the PMM team regarding degradation particularly important habitats for commercially exploited fish stocks (illegal), the discontent of the fishers community on the management of derivative gains to the economy of their coastal zones (only sources of income for fishers families) and this dissatisfaction directly causes increased pressure on fish stocks. The main recommendations concern the emergency capacity building of the General Directorate of Environment and Forestry, the Ministry of Production, Environment, Energy, Industry and Handicrafts, the curators of the park and the members of the Management Committee PMM to implement a permanent dialogue and mutual gains between users and stakeholders of the park.  
Keys Words: Mutual gains approach to negotiate, Conflicts, Marine resources, fishery, Stakeholders, Marine Protected area, Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).

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