Login | Register |


Keep yourself updated on the latest content discussions with NBSAP Forum Members

NBSAP Themes

  Forum Topics Posts Last post
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target One - Biodiversity Awareness - focuses on the need for society to be aware of the wide range of values of biodiversity, including social, ecological and economic benefits. It states: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. 

Addressing the direct and underlying drivers of biodiversity loss will ultimately require behavioral changes by individuals, organizations and governments. Public understanding, awareness and appreciation of the diverse values of biodiversity are critical if individuals, organizations and governments are to become willing to make the necessary changes and actions to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity, and if governments are to enact and enforce appropriate policies and legislation. Understanding the values and benefits of biodiversity is a critical first step to integrating these values into economic and development sectors. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target One, countries need to understand the current levels of awareness of biodiversity, and develop and implement an effective and targeted communication plan that helps explain the diverse values of nature. 

Indicators of biodiversity awareness may include status and trends in: 

  • Public awareness of the values of biodiversity
  • Public outreach and communication efforts

Main Resources

215 Message From The Executive Secretary Of The Convention On Biological Diversity, Mr. Braulio Ferreira De Souza Dias On The Occasi
by Heena Ahmed
2018 Jun 18 - 00:37
No new


Aichi Biodiversity Target Two - Biodiversity Mainstreaming – focuses on the need to integrate the values and benefits of biodiversity into societal decision-making. It states: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Although biodiversity and ecosystem services provide enormous societal values, these values and benefits are not widely reflected or accounted for in societal decision making, including in productive sectors, such as agriculture and energy, and in development sectors, such as land-use planning and poverty reduction. As a result, these and other sectors often have major negative impacts on biodiversity, underpinning the very foundation that sustains them. Furthermore, trends in biodiversity loss are often invisible in national accounts. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target Two, countries need to assess the values of biodiversity to a variety of sectors, and integrate biodiversity values fully into their national planning processes. Countries should consider developing natural capital accounting systems, and those that recognize social and cultural values.

Indicators of biodiversity mainstreaming may include status and trends in:

• Biodiversity value assessments for key development and economic sectors
• Incorporating natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystem services into national accounting systems
• Incorporating biodiversity into environmental impact assessments and strategic environmental assessments

Main Resources

  1. Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 Quick Guide
  2. IIED and UNEP-WCMC NBSAPs 2.0 Mainstreaming Biodiversity and Development Project
  3. IIED Environmental Mainstreaming
  4. The Economics of Ecosystems of Biodiversity
  5. Poverty Environment Initiative
  6. World Bank WAVES Program CBD B-3. Mainstreaming biodiversity into sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies, plans and programmes (2011)
  7. CBD Technical Series 28
  8. Natural Capital Project
  9. The Green Economy
  10. UN System for Economic and Environmental Accounting
  11. CBD Cross-cutting Theme: Biodiversity for Development
  12. UNDP Mainstreaming Environment into Development
  13. UNEP-WCMC and IEEP: Incorporating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Values into NBSAPs: Guidance to Support NBSAP Practitioners
  14. UNEP-WCMC and IEEP: Incorporating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Values into NBSAPs: Roadmap to Support NBSAP Practitioners
by Monique Chiasson
2018 Oct 4 - 21:05
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Three - Incentives and Subsidies – focuses on the need to change the incentives and subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity. It states: By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio-economic conditions. 

Biodiversity and ecosystems maintain the flow of ecosystem services that are essential for human wellbeing, including economic development. Yet incentives and subsidies often encourage individual and organizational behavior that either fosters biodiversity loss and degradation (often as an unintended consequence of the subsidy), or that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target Three, countries need to assess the current status of incentives and subsidies; understand the unintended consequences of these to biodiversity; eliminate, phase out or reform incentives and subsidies that are harmful for biodiversity; and, develop and apply incentives and subsidies that safeguard biodiversity. 

Target 3 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • The number and value of environmentally harmful incentives
  • The number and value of environmentally positive incentive

Main Resources

15 Resumen Semana 3 - Curso Abierto Masivo en Línea sobre "Consumo y Producción Ecológicos"
by Marcela Torres
2018 Apr 4 - 20:50
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Four - Sustainable Production and Consumption– focuses on the sustainable production and consumption of natural resources. It states: By 2020, at the latest, governments, businesses and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve, or have implemented, plans for sustainable production and consumption, and have kept the impacts of natural resources use well within safe ecological limits. 

The unsustainable use of natural resources is one of the main drivers of the loss of biodiversity and the impairment of ecosystems. Current levels of natural resource production and consumption are not sustainable in many countries. Issues include the depletion of forest stocks, the use of water beyond carrying capacity, the degradation of soil fertility, and the collapse of species resulting from overharvesting. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target Four, and manage natural resources within safe ecological limits, countries will need to assess the type and magnitude of pressures facing biodiversity and ecosystems within their own boundaries; understand how consumption patterns affect biodiversity and ecosystems within and beyond their national boundaries; and develop plans for sustainable production and consumption that fall within safe ecological limits. 

Target 4 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • National ecological footprints and key ecological limits
  • Depletion rates of biodiversity and key stocks of natural resources

Main Resources

100 NBSAP of Egypt and better integration of SCP
by Shaimaa Taha
2019 Feb 5 - 21:52
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Five - Habitat Fragmentation and Degradation – focuses on reducing habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation. It states: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. 

Habitat loss, including degradation and fragmentation, is the most important cause of biodiversity loss globally. Reducing the rate of loss, and eventually halting it, is essential for protecting biodiversity and maintaining the ecosystem services that are vital to human wellbeing. This is particularly important for habitats that have been greatly diminished or degraded by human activities, or that face a critical tipping point or threshold. This target applies to all habitats, including forests, wetlands, grasslands, and coastal systems, among others. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target Five, and effectively reduce habitat fragmentation and degradation, countries will need to assess the status, trends and distribution of key natural habitats; understand the drivers of loss and degradation of these habitats; and take a variety of steps to safeguard against further loss and degradation, including through land-use planning, integration of biodiversity into key production and development sectors, and increased land and water protection. 

Target 5 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • The extent, condition, and fragmentation of key habitats and ecosystems
  • The populations of key species dependent upon these habitats and ecosystems

Main Resources

21 IIED Briefing: Meeting future demand for drinking water supply in Dar es Salaam: Hydrological modelling of the Ruvu River and assessment of flows
by Anonymous (not verified)
2018 Apr 4 - 10:33
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Six – Sustainable Fisheries – focuses on the sustainable management of the world’s fisheries, including of key species and habitats. It states: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. 

Overexploitation is a severe pressure on marine and riverine ecosystems globally, and has led to dramatic declines in fish stocks. This theme applies to all fish, invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants that are affected, either directly or indirectly, through harvesting activities. To achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target Six, sustainable fisheries management, countries will need to assess the state and trends of fisheries and fish habitats. They will need to take a variety of steps, including protecting areas critical for life stages; ensuring appropriate policies and catch levels; developing and implementing recovery plans for depleted species; and enforcing all relevant laws, including illegal fishing practices. 

Target 6 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • Area, frequency and/or intensity of fishing practices that are destructive and/or outside safe biological limits
  • Fishing catch per unit effort for key species
  • Populations of key target species including by-catch species
  • Protection of ecologically and biologically significant areas for fisheries

Main Resources

9 Le renforcement des capacités à négocier pour la résolution des conflits portant sur la gestion des ressources naturelles: le cas du Parc Marin de Mohéli, aux iles Comores
2018 Nov 30 - 22:10
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Sustainable Resource Management

Aichi Biodiversity Target Seven – Sustainable Resource Management – focuses on sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry. It states: By 2020, areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. 

Current levels and systems of production and consumption of food, fiber and fuel are unsustainable in many areas, leading to a long-term loss in ecosystem productivity and biodiversity, and the impairment of ecosystem services. Sustainable resource management ensures that the use of biodiversity and ecosystem components does not lead to long-term declines. Sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture and forestry can minimize biodiversity losses, while providing a range of long-term benefits. These include improving soil fertility, controlling erosion, enhancing pollination, reducing disease and contributing to sustainable livelihoods. To achieve Target Seven, countries will need to assess the extent to which existing forests, agricultural and aquaculture operations are under sustainable management; prioritize these areas based on their impacts to biodiversity and ecosystems services; and identify appropriate policies for fostering sustainable management. This includes, for example, developing national guidelines for sustainable management, promoting independent certification, and removing subsidies for unsustainable practices. 

Target 7 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • Area of forestry, agriculture and aquaculture under sustainable management
  • Proportions of products derived and marketed from sustainably managed sources

Main Resources

52 Une solution pour la degradation du littorale aux Comores
2019 Aug 6 - 00:03
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Eight – Pollution – focuses on the reduction of pollution. It states: By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity. 

Pollution, especially in the form of excess nitrogen and phosphorus, is a major cause of loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem functioning, especially in wetland, coastal and dryland areas. Excessive nutrients from sewage and agricultural runoff can also cause dead zones, with severe losses of biodiversity and impairment of ecosystem services. Reducing pollution to non-harmful levels is critical to ensuring the long-term maintenance of key ecosystem services. To achieve Target Eight, countries will need to assess the extent, severity and distribution of point and non-point sources of pollution and gauge the impact of this pollution on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. They will also need to develop appropriate responses, such as strengthening national water quality standards, reducing subsidies on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, increasing riparian and coastal buffer zones, and developing wastewater treatment facilities. 

Target 8 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Pollution emissions, deposition rate, and ozone levels
  • Extents of hypoxic zones and algal blooms
  • Levels of contaminants in wildlife
  • Water quality in aquatic ecosystems

Main Resources

5 Resume Of Advances On The Resilience Project On Pollution At Eastern Las Vegas
by Ensafeindia
2019 Jan 22 - 16:59
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Nine – Invasive Alien Species – focuses on the reduction of threats to biodiversity and ecosystems from invasive alien species. It states: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. 

Invasive alien species are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in many ecosystems, and particularly in island ecosystems. They can pray on native species or outcompete them for resources. In addition, invasive alien species can carry enormous social and economic costs by posing a threat to food security, water supplies, human health and economic development. To reduce the threat from them, countries will need to identify the extent and distribution of prioritized invasive alien species; gauge their impact on key biodiversity and ecosystems, including economic impacts. They will also need to take steps to reduce pressures and future threats, including early detection and prevention of new introductions; controlling or eradicating existing populations; and developing national invasive species plans. 

Target 9 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • Distributions of key invasive species
  • Impacts of key invasive species on biodiversity and ecosystems
  • Economic impacts of key invasive alien species
  • Policy responses, including legislation, management plans, early detection and control efforts

Main Resources

7 In-Tree Project. Introduced Tree species in European Forests
by Ensafeindia
2019 Jan 24 - 19:16
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Ten – Vulnerable ecosystems – focuses on reducing pressures on ecosystems that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, in order to improve resilience and enable adaptation of these systems. It states: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification, are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. 

Reducing anthropogenic pressures on vulnerable ecosystems that are disproportionately affected by climate change will strengthen the resilience of these ecosystems, and provide more opportunities for them to adapt to climate-related impacts. Ecosystems vulnerable to climate change impacts include coral reefs, mangroves, wetlands, Mediterranean forests, temperate grasslands, montane grasslands and forests, tropical forests, boreal forests, islands, peatlands and polar ecosystems, among others. To reduce pressures on vulnerable ecosystems, countries will need to identify which ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate change impacts and to anthropogenic pressures and identify and reduce the multiple threats that undermine ecological integrity and functioning, including pollution, fragmentation, invasive species and unsustainable harvesting. They will also need to develop and implement plans for strengthening ecosystem-wide resilience, including increasing protection of healthy, well-disbursed examples of the ecosystem and improving connectivity. 

Target 10 indicators may include status and trends in: 

  • The distribution and condition of vulnerable ecosystems
  • The levels of threat and protection of those ecosystems

Main Resources

12 COP 14 side event: Protecting intact ecosystems as part of an overall nature retention target
by Marion Marigo
2018 Nov 18 - 23:21
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe


Aichi Biodiversity Target Eleven – Protected Areas – focuses on protected areas. It states: By 2020, at least 17 percent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative, and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes. 

Protected areas are geographically defined areas, designated or regulated, and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. They include not only strictly protected areas under government control, but also a wide range of areas that allow for sustainable use, including areas owned by indigenous and local communities. Comprehensive, effectively managed protected area systems are a proven method for safeguarding habitats and species, avoiding extinctions, maintaining important ecosystem services, and achieving development goals. Protected areas should contain at least 10 percent of each ecoregion within each country. In order to achieve Target 11, countries will need to assess gaps in their protected area network and identify key weaknesses and threats, as well as take steps to improve protected area coverage, representativeness, connectivity and management effectiveness. 

Targets 11 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Coverage, representativeness, connectivity and management effectiveness of protected area systems
  • Protection for species at risk of extinction, vulnerable ecosystems, and areas providing key ecosystem services

Main Resources


245 Hot off the Press! UNDP and ILCN launch a new report on Privately Protected Areas, analysing status in 30 countries
by Heena Ahmed
2019 Sep 4 - 03:40
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Twelve – Species and Extinctions – focuses on preventing the extinction of species. It states: By 2020, the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained. 

Human pressure is causing the current rate of species extinction to be more than 100 times the known background extinction rate. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (hyperlink: contains a list of more than 19,000 species that are threatened globally, including in the categories of vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered. Of these, more than 3,900 species are critically endangered. Countries may also have their own lists of additional threatened species. Preventing extinctions will require concerted efforts to reduce threats to threatened species, and to ensure adequate habitat protection. For wide-ranging species, preventing extinctions may also require coordination across boundaries with other countries and regions. In order to achieve Aichi Target 12, countries will need to identify species at risk of extinction; assess the status and distribution of these species; and, identify key threats and levels of protection for prioritized species. They will also need to undertake key actions, including developing species recovery plans, reducing threats to key species, and improving the protection status of the habitats of key species. 

Target 12 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Abundance, distribution and extinction risk of species threatened with extinction
  • Protection of species threatened with extinction

Main Resources

39 Hard-won wisdom: What conservationists need to know about wildlife-related corruption
by Anonymous (not verified)
2018 Apr 4 - 10:33
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Thirteen – Genetic Diversity – focuses on the maintenance of genetic diversity of plants and animals important for maintaining national and global food security. It states: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and wild relatives, including other socio-economically and culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity. 

The genetic diversity of cultivated plants and domesticated animals, and of their wild relatives, is in decline globally. Genetic diversity is critical to maintaining global food security, and to ensuring a robust, resilient agricultural system that can adapt to the impacts of climate change, including genetic stocks that are resistant to drought, disease, floods and temperature fluctuations. In order to achieve this goal, countries will need to identify the status of genetic diversity of cultivated plants, domesticated animals and their wild relatives; assess the distribution, condition and current threat and protection status of wild crop and domesticated animal relatives. They will also need to take actions, such as develop seed banks, increase protection and decrease threats to wild crop relatives; promote diversified agriculture; and implement legislation, policies and plans that safeguard genetic diversity and avoid genetic erosion. 

Target 13 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their wild relatives
  • Threats and protection levels of these species
  • Policies that safeguard genetic diversity and reduce genetic erosion

Main Resources

4 Résumé De La Deuxieme Semaine Du Cours En Ligne Sur Une Introduction Sur La Résilience Pour Le Développement Deuxième Partie
by Laurent Mesbah
2018 May 9 - 19:39
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Fourteen – Ecosystem Services – focuses on restoring and safeguarding critical ecosystem services. It states: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable. 

Ecosystems provide a wide range of goods and services that are essential to humans. These include food, fiber, medicines, fresh water, crop pollination, pollution control, sustainable livelihoods and natural disaster prevention, among many others. Ecosystem services are particularly important for vulnerable sectors of society, who depend disproportionately on them for their wellbeing. However, many ecosystems around the world have become degraded, and are in urgent need of threat mitigation, protection and/or restoration. In order to achieve Target 14, countries will need to identify the distribution and condition of critical ecosystems and assess the current levels of threat and protection of these ecosystems. They will also need to develop and implement key actions, including reducing key threats, increasing protection, changing management practices, and restoring degraded ecosystems. 

Target 14 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Conditions of key ecosystems
  • Protection status of key ecosystems
  • Flow sof ecosystems services from key ecosystems

Main Resources

22 PA Business Plan Catalogue - Planes de Negocios en Areas Marinas Protegidas, Parque Nacional Cahuita
by Marion Marigo
2019 Feb 26 - 07:02
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Fifteen – Climate Resilience – focuses on strengthening climate resilience and carbon sequestration through ecosystem restoration. It states: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least fifteen percent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification. 

Deforestation, wetland drainage, mangrove removal, seagrass bed damage, overgrazing of grasslands and other types of habitat degradation lead to increased emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases, and to increased vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Restoring degraded ecosystems can simultaneously increase carbon sequestration, improve climate resilience, and restore essential ecosystem services and safeguard biodiversity. In order to achieve Target 15, countries will need to assess the distribution and status of key degraded ecosystems; understand the role of these ecosystems in enhancing climate resilience and sequestering carbon and identify and prioritize key areas for restoration. They will also need to undertake key restoration actions, including restoring natural disturbance regimes, controlling harmful invasive species, managing over-abundant species, recreating native communities, reintroducing species and improving the abiotic environment, among others. 

Target 15 indicators may include status and trends in:

  • Conditions of key degraded ecosystems
  • Trends in the scope and extent of restoration efforts

Main Resources

68 Supporting complex decisions that don't undermine biodiversity
by Phoebe Barnard, PhD
2019 Mar 30 - 05:34
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Access and Benefits Sharing

Aichi Biodiversity Target Sixteen – Access and Benefits Sharing focuses on the Nagoya Protocol and equitable sharing of the benefits of biodiversity. It states: By 2015, the “Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization” (the Nagoya Protocol) – - is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.

The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits, arising out of the utilization of genetic resources of biodiversity, is one of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity ( The Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the Nagoya Protocol at its tenth meeting in Nagoya, Japan. The Nagoya Protocol provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of fair and equitable benefits sharing of genetic resources. In order to achieve this target, countries will need to assess the opportunities and constraints involved in ratifying the Nagoya Protocol; understand the legislative, administrative and policy measures that will need to be in place to meet the obligations of the Nagoya Protocol, and implement these measures.

Target 16 indicators may include:

  • The number of Parties to the CBD that have ratified the Nagoya Protocol.
  • The degree to which countries have taken steps to implement the Nagoya Protocol, including efforts to: 
  • Define mutually agreed terms
  • Identify benefits sharing agreements
  • Establish a prior informed consent process for sharing traditional knowledge
  • Assess the current status of key species involved in any ABS agreements

Main Resources

21 Facilitating BioTrade in a Challenging Access and Benefit Sharing Environment - UNCTAD
by Anonymous (not verified)
2018 Apr 4 - 10:33
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Seventeen – NBSAPs – focuses on the development and implementation of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs). It states: By 2015, each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan. 

NBSAPs are the key instrument for translating the Convention on Biological Diversity into national action. Article 6 of the Convention requires countries to prepare a national biodiversity strategy that reflects how a country intends to fulfill the objectives of the Convention. Although most countries have developed an NBSAP, many of these are outdated, and few fully address the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The process of revising an NBSAP should involve all relevant stakeholders, should be a dynamic process that allows countries to identify priorities and establish plans that are consistent with their broader national goals, and should be fully incorporated into national sectoral and development plans and strategies. In order to achieve this target, countries will need to assess how well their existing NBSAP addresses existing conditions, trends and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets; identify key constraints and opportunities in sustainable use, conservation and benefits sharing of biodiversity; develop specific strategies and action plans; develop a prioritized work plan; adopt the NBSAP as a national instrument; and begin implementation. 

Target 17 indicators may include trends in: 

  • The development of NBSAPs that fully incorporate the Aichi Biodiversity Targets 
  • Trends in national NBSAP adoption and implementation

Main Resources

by Monique Chiasson
2018 Oct 4 - 21:16
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Eighteen – Traditional Knowledge – focuses on respecting the traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities. It states: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels. 

Traditional knowledge includes the body of knowledge built by indigenous and local communities over generations. Traditional knowledge can contribute to both the conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Traditional knowledge is especially important in ensuring the diversity of biodiversity and natural resource management practices required to enable adaptation to climate change impacts. In order to achieve Target 18, countries will need to assess how well traditional knowledge has been integrated and reflected in different phases of the implementation of the Convention; assess the degree of participation of indigenous and local communities; and identify mechanisms for improving the integration of indigenous and local communities. 

Target 18 indicators may include trends in: 

  • The diversity of participation in NBSAP development and implementation
  • The degree to which traditional knowledge and practices are respected through full integration and participation
  • The development of traditional knowledge safeguards in NBSAPs

Main Resources

167 Foro en línea para la aplicación del Programa de desarrollo de capacidades sobre arreglos nacionales de CT, logro de la Meta 18 y contribución a la Meta 16 del Plan Estratégico para la Diversidad Biológica 2011-2020
by Marion Marigo
2018 Apr 4 - 16:43
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Nineteen – Science and Research – focuses on improving, sharing and applying scientific knowledge and research. The full text for Aichi Biodiversity Target 19 states: By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied. 

All countries require scientifically sound data in order to develop and implement their NBSAPs. They also require an understanding of the ecological, social and economic consequences of the loss of biodiversity and the impairment of ecosystems. This requires not only sound data, but also effective systems that help policy makers translate data into information for better decision-making. In order to achieve Target 19, countries will need to assess the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystems, assess the social, economic and ecological consequences of biodiversity loss and ecosystem impairment, and take steps to strengthen both the underlying data as well as data management systems for decision making. 

Indicators of science and research may include the extent to which national data and information systems capture the status and trends of: 

  • The distribution and condition of key biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services
  • Levels of threats, sustainable use, protection and restoration of key biodiversity and ecosystems

Main Resources

9 Funding Announcement: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research
by Joanne Flanders
2018 Jun 28 - 05:02
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Aichi Biodiversity Target Twenty – Resource Mobilization – focuses on mobilizing the financial resources required to implement a country’s National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan (NBSAP). It states: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes that are contingent with the resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties. 

The cost of implementing the CBD Strategic Plan and achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets is enormous. Yet bilateral and multilateral financial assistance accounts for just a tiny portion of total biodiversity expenditures. In order to be able to implement NBSAPs around the world, and to achieve the CBD Strategic Plan, there must be a transformation in the way that resources are mobilized for biodiversity. This includes a transformation in subsidies that harm biodiversity, and a transformation in implementing innovative finance mechanisms. In order to achieve Target 20, countries will need to understand the current national biodiversity expenditures, including expenditures that harm biodiversity and identify the full cost of implementing each of the NBSAP strategies and actions. They will also need to develop a detailed resource mobilization plan that identifies a wide range of finance actors, mechanisms and opportunities for mobilizing biodiversity resources. 

Indicators of resource mobilization may include trends in: 

  • Biodiversity expenditure reviews
  • Developing a comprehensive, prioritized costing for key strategies and actions within the NBSAP
  • The volume and sustainability of finance mobilized for biodiversity

Main Resources

81 Presentación I: Integrando la biodiversidad a la planificación, experiencia de Costa Rica con su Estrategia Nacional de Biodiversidad y BIOFIN
by Anonymous (not verified)
2018 Apr 4 - 10:33
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Policy and legislation focuses on developing and implementing effective national policies and legislation in order to translate the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets into NBSAPs. The important role of policy and legislation in national and sub-national biodiversity planning has been repeatedly emphasized in the last two decades. However, due to lack of awareness and political will, policy and legal approaches to address the biodiversity crisis often reflect a traditional understanding of biodiversity law. Reforms often focus on legal measures aimed directly at the protection of habitats, ecosystems and species, and not on those that indirectly affect biological diversity. They thus neglect some of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. In order for NBSAPs to become an integral part of the wider policy, legal and institutional framework, and to enable mainstreaming in development sectors, legal and policy considerations will need to play a key role in each step of the NBSAP revision process. This revision process includes the biodiversity planning cycle in general (e.g. roles and responsibilities, timeline, stakeholder participation and coordination and monitoring mechanisms etc.) as well as the core elements of strategic biodiversity planning: the identification of targets and actions, their prioritization, and their implementation. As part of the NBSAP revision process, planners should undertake a comprehensive legal and policy analysis. This analysis should include challenges and obstacles associated with different legal options or policy approaches. It should also include consideration on how to overcome legal and policy barriers and challenges.

Main Resources

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 15.0px Calibri; color: #1e497d; -webkit-text-stroke: #1e497d} span.s1 {font-kerning: none}
17 HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: All Webinar Recordings Now Available!
by Diego Ochoa
2018 Apr 20 - 05:46
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Spatial planning focuses on the use of spatial data for biodiversity and ecosystems mapping and planning. Spatial data includes a wide range of data that are stored, analysed and presented in spatial format, typically using some kind of geographic information system (GIS). 

Decision X/2 of the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD (COP 10) urged parties to use revised NBSAPs as effective instruments for the integration of biodiversity targets into spatial planning processes by Government and the private sector at all levels. Policy makers depend upon spatially-explicit information in order to effectively design, implement and manage policies and plans for a wide range of environmental issues, including land management, climate change and biodiversity conservation. Spatial data and mapping can be utilised within an NBSAP to illustrate the current status of biodiversity in a region, identify national priorities and visually communicate key biodiversity issues. These data can provide baselines to track progress towards national and international targets, analyse trade-offs, measure policy impacts and consider future scenarios. 

The types of spatial planning included in an NBSAP can range from simple datasets to more complex real time mapping tools and systematic conservation planning approaches. Maps of biogeographic regions, ecosystem services, key biodiversity areas, land cover, land use and land use change, protected areas and species distributions are particularly useful in demonstrating national priorities within the NBSAP. The recommended resources and datasets will assist an NBSAP team to identify the appropriate tools and datasets that target country requirements. In learning how to transform common barriers to incorporating spatial data and mapping into NBSAPS, such as limited access to reliable data, NBSAP teams will also be better prepared to integrate it into revised NBSAPs.

Main Resources

190 SBSTTA 23: Using Spatial Data to Support NBSAP Implementation for the post-2020 GBF: Best Practices from around the world
by Marion Marigo
2019 Dec 7 - 05:45
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Gender Mainstreaming refers to the coherent and comprehensive inclusion of gender considerations into the design and implementation of the NBSAP. Gender mainstreaming can increase the effectiveness of implementation and can help ensure that biodiversity objectives do not undermine human well-being. The potential benefits of gender mainstreaming include avoiding the risk of worsening existing gender inequalities through biodiversity policies, programs and projects; gaining the support and engagement of women, who form half of the population; benefiting from women’s specific knowledge regarding biodiversity, its uses and conservation; and contributing to improving the wellbeing of women and of the poor. Although women are specifically mentioned only in Target 14, gender considerations crosscut most of the Aichi Targets. There are many ways to approach gender issues in the NBSAP. Regardless of the specific steps taken, and the particular areas where each country may focus, there are four broad goals that planners should aim to include gender issues in their NBSAPs, including: (a) ensuring women’s participation in decision-making; (b) preventing negative impacts on women; (c) promoting benefits for women; and, (d) promoting gender equality.

Main Resources

30 Webinar on Gender & Access and Benefits Sharing
by Marion Marigo
2018 Aug 21 - 15:35
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

The Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) is a two-way information exchange platform which can contribute to national planning, implementation and reporting in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It was established in accordance with Article 18.3 of the Convention to promote scientific and technical cooperation, and its evolution has been guided by COP decisions, the most recent being X/15 and XI/2 B and XII/2 B. The CHM is a global network with the CBD website as a central hub, national Clearing-House Mechanisms at country level, and partner institutions at thematic or regional levels.

In this context, a national CHM should complement the global information services of the the central CHM by providing more specific information services to facilitate the implementation of the NBSAP at country level. Therefore, an NBSAP should include a strategic vision for the national CHM and, where appropriate, a realistic roadmap for its operationalization and further development based on anticipated resources. This way, the information services provided by the national CHM will effectively respond to national needs identified by the NBSAP.

Even with limited resources, a national CHM can be effective by providing:

  1. Information in the national language(s).
  2. A brief online version of the latest NBSAP and national report for easy reference (e.g. executive summary).
  3. News on major national events related to biodiversity.
  4. Links to information on national biodiversity, especially if these links are in the NBSAP or national report.
  5. A directory of institutions and expertise related to NBSAP implementation.
  6. A space where national stakeholders can express their views and announce their biodiversity related events and activities.
  7. Additional content or links that respond to other identified national information needs, whenever possible.

Main Resources

1 Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) Award at COP 13
by Heena Ahmed
2017 Feb 23 - 04:56
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

Targets and indicators

Targets and Indicators focuses on using targets and indicators in the implementation of NBSAPs. The CBD COP Decision X/2 that adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 also urged Parties to develop national targets to integrate into their NBSAPs. Target setting should be conducted in accordance with national situations, priorities and capacities, using the five Strategic Goals and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 as a flexible framework. In the same Decision, Parties were also urged to monitor and review the implementation of their NBSAPs. Indicators are a key tool that can be used to monitor, evaluate, and report progress towards the targets at the national and international levels. Targets provide a focus and help set priorities for the implementation of an NBSAP to achieve a desired outcome. Targets make it easier to move from words to action, and from actions into measurable results. A target can be defined as a specified value or level of performance of something that is to be achieved or maintained, and towards which action is aimed. An indicator is a metric based on verifiable data that conveys information. For each target, it is important to develop one or more indicators. Effective indicators help planners to track progress towards targets, to understand and monitor key status and trends in biodiversity, to raise awareness about an issue, to identify and prioritize actions, and to assess the progress, success and effectiveness of these actions as part of adaptive management. Target setting and indicator development should involve stakeholder and expert consultation in the gathering and analysis of information. Indicators should be developed for specific national targets, taking into account potential linkages to global indicators for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Main Resources

28 Developing Biodiversity Indicators - e-learning module
by Heena Ahmed
2018 Jun 15 - 04:34
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

The negotiation and adoption, in 1992, of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) coincided with the emergence and rapid growth of modern biotechnology, which raised some concerns about its safe use. This led to the incorporation of references in the CBD. These include both the benefits of 
biotechnology, as well as the need to take measures to safeguard biodiversity and human health from the potential negative effects of living modified organisms (LMOs), as a result from modern biotechnology.

The Convention provides that each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate:


  • Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of LMOs (Article 8(g)).
  • Provide and/or facilitate access for and transfer to other Parties of technologies, including biotechnology, that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and do not cause significant damage to the environment (Article 16.1).
  • Provide any available information about the use and safety regulations required in handling LMOs, as well as any available information on the potential adverse impacts to the country into which they are to be introduced (Article 19.4).

These Convention provisions focused mostly on the need of Parties to take measures at the national level. In response to Article 19.3 of the Convention, the Parties negotiated and adopted the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in January 2000.

The Cartagena Protocol aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of LMOs resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. The Protocol focuses on regulating LMO’s that are subject to transboundary movement between Parties. Subsequent meetings of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Protocol (COP-MOP) have adopted a set of decisions on how to implement the Protocol provisions, including the handling, transport, packaging and identification of LMOs, and risk assessment and risk management.

In 2010, COP-MOP 5 adopted a supplementary agreement, known as the Nagoya–Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol, which establishes rules and procedures for redress, including response measures in the event of damage to biodiversity resulting from LMOs. In 2010, it also adopted the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol (2011-2020). It invited Parties to review and align their national biodiversity action plans and programmes, including NBSAPs, with the plan (Decision BS-V/16). In 2014, the COP 12 encouraged countries to integrate biosafety and access and benefit sharing into NBSAPs and other relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral policies, plans and programmes. It also called for a strengthening of national mechanisms to facilitate a coordinated approach to the implementation of the Convention and its Protocols (Decision XII/29, paragraphs 9-11). Biosafety measures may also directly contribute to achieving some of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for example targets 1, 7, 9, 13, 14, 17 and 19.

Main Resources


Country progress map: Implementing the programme of work on public awareness, education and participation regarding LMOs

Priority Area 1 of the Programme of Work on Public Awareness, Education and Participation regarding LMOs recommends that the integration and promotion of the programme of work elements into awareness and education components in the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) and Priority Area 5 of the Programme of Work recommends the integration of work on Article 23 of the Cartagena Protocol on public awareness, education and participation regarding LMOs with CEPA, including materials in particular for youth education.

The programme of work is available at Below is a progress map of the current implementation of the programme of work.


10 15th Anniversary of the Entry into Force of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
by Marion Marigo
2018 Sep 18 - 16:34
No new

Discussion ForumsSubscribe

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, agreed by 193 Member States of the United Nations, sets out an ambitious set of 17 goals and 169 targets - embodying three basic principles of indivisibility, inclusion and acceleration to achieve social, economic, and environmental progress. Because the 2030 Agenda is consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, the implementation of one contributes to the achievement of the other.

Actions to conserve, sustainably manage and equitably share benefits of ecosystems directly contribute to human well-being and development priorities, including by reducing poverty, promoting food security, ensuring health, ensuring water security, securing renewable energy, sustaining livelihoods and jobs, proving resilient green infrastructure, promoting climate change mitigation and adaptation, conserving oceans, and conserving biodiversity.

The 2030 Agenda seeks to benefit all people, and commits to leaving no one behind. To deliver the ambitious 2030 Agenda, countries must ensure that NBSAP actions are linked to national development planning, and to locally grounded action. Local communities, which are disproportionately responsible for maintaining the world's biodiversity while becoming more vulnerable to the impacts of over-consumption, biodiversity loss and climate change, can play a key role in implementing NBSAP actions.

The impact of NBSAPs extends far beyond Goal 14 (Life below Water) and Goal 15 (Life on Land); each NBSAP action is capable of contributing to multiple development goals. NBSAPs adopted as policy instruments can provide a ready pathway to accelerate implementation of SDGs.

Main Resources

22 Seminario: Pensamiento Resiliente y la Agenda Global
by Viktoriia Brezheniuk
2018 Apr 4 - 20:42
No new
.pagination { float: right; } .forum-node-create-links { left: 0px !important; z-index: -1; }
Article 26 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) states that, at intervals to be determined by the Conference of the Parties (COP), Parties will report on the measures which they have taken to implement the provisions of the CBD and their effectiveness in meeting CBD objectives. The next national report to the CBD, the Sixth National Report (6NR), is due 31 December 2018. At the thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 13), held in Cancun in December 2016, the 6NR guidelines and reporting templates were adopted (Decision XIII/27). These documents can be accessed here. This reporting period will provide a final review of the progress each Party is making to implement the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

The Sixth National Report contains seven sections:

  1. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level
  2. Implementation measures taken (to implement the national biodiversity strategy and action plan (NBSAP)), assessment of their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets
  3. An assessment of progress towards each national target
  4. A description of the national contribution to the achievement of each global Aichi Biodiversity Target
  5. A description of the national contribution to the achievement of the targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (completion of this section is optional)
  6. Additional information on the contribution of indigenous peoples and local communities to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets if not captured in the sections above (completion of this section is optional)
  7. Updated biodiversity country profiles

An optional online reporting tool, accessible on the CBD Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM), is available in the six UN languages to facilitate the reporting process.

Main Resources

Inception Workshop

72 6NR Workshop at the First OEWG for the Post-2020 Framework: Assessment of Progress on the ABTs & Use of Spatial Data in 6NRs
by Annie Virnig
2019 Aug 26 - 20:27